Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Although homophobia exists in nearly all societies, Russia has recently gained notoriety for its intolerance of homosexual behavior. In a world that is becoming more and more accepting and tolerant of homosexuality, Russia seems to be moving backward when it comes to LGBTQ rights, existing in a tightly conservative macrosystem. Many RussianÃ¢â¬â¢s hold a constructionist view of homosexuality, meaning outside forces are responsible for influencing Ã¢â¬Å"untraditionalÃ¢â¬ behaviors, rather than the contemporary essentialist view, meaning homosexuality is an inborn trait (Welch, 146). Understandably, RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s tumultuous political past must be a strong contributor to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes towards homosexuality and other sexual orientations. Under the Tsars,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Especially made apparent recently during the Winter Olympics in Sochi, another factor is the use of the state run and social media outlets which influence the homophobic attitudes among wo rking class Russians due to this hegemony or dominance of heterosexism as the norm by those in charge. National and local news agencies do nothing but glorify the actions of Vladimir Putin and the Kremlin, and this is effectively brainwashing the public into believing they are in a state of normality. Due to the enactment of the Anti-Gay Propaganda Law by Vladimir Putin and the Duma, the profile of the LGBTQ community has raised significantly in social and state media. Almost all of these reports are outright hostile or else noticeably negative towards homosexuality (Ennis, 1). The state-controlled news network Rossiya 1 is largely responsible for anti-gay propaganda, stating that homosexuals are an aggressive minority and that Ã¢â¬Å"40% of children raised in a same-sex household have venereal diseasesÃ¢â¬ (Ennis, 2). One journalist for Rossiya 1 stated that Russian society is in danger of being engulfed by a Ã¢â¬Å"homosexual sodomite tsunamiÃ¢â¬ . Social media is also being used in the harassment of the LGBTQ community with vigilante groups setting up Ã¢â¬Å"ambushesÃ¢â¬ luring them to meetings and then humiliating them on camera (Luhn, 1), and even forced to come out to loved ones on some occasions. These videos are then uploaded on websites such asShow MoreRelatedRussia and the Underlying Causes of Homophobia597 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pagesits intolerance of homosexual behavior. In a world that is becoming more and more accepting and tolerant of homosexuality, Russia seems to be moving backward when it comes to LGBTQ rights. Understandably, RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s tumultuous political past must be a strong contributor to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes towards homosexuality. Under the Tsars, homosexuality was a crime punishable by imprisonment or death, after Lenin came to power after the October Revolution, homosexuality was decriminalized and homosexuals wereRead MoreCensoring The Censorship Of Media3205 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesthat support hatred towards the LGBT co mmunity. With homosexuality being illegal Ã¢â¬Å"in Cameroon, as it is in 76 other countries around the world. But in Cameroon the police and courts seek to actively prosecute. Around a dozen people are jailed for homosexual offences each year. Even more disturbing is the homophobia that is being stoked in society, and the violence that hate can releaseÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Hate UnleashedÃ¢â¬ ). Is not just one country that makes it impossible for gay people to be free and openly gay, thereRead More Superiority of Races in Sinclair Lewis Babbitt Essay example2147 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesSuperiority of Races in Babbit Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Hatred, intolerance, prejudice, and narrow-mindedness are all terms that can be applied when describing someone who is a bigot.Ã By these terms George F. Babbitt, the protagonist in Sinclair Lewis Babbitt, and many of his acquaintances are quite the bigots toward all those that appear different than he is especially immigrants and minorities in America.Ã The blame should not be placed squarely on these mens shoulders for possessing such hateRead MorePsy Evaluation Essay11057 Words Ã |Ã 45 Pagesof money. C. close surveillance of employees. D. advantages of playing black jack. ANS:C PG6-7 6. A behavior pattern of compulsive substance abuse is the definition of: A. contemporary perspective B. metacommunication C. incompatible with the biopsychosocial model D. the concept of addiction ANS:D PG9 7. According to the text, to understand the pain connected with addictive and compulsive behavior, one must: A. focus on harm reduction. B. understand the pleasure side of the activity. C. emphasizeRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesTwo-thirds of the westward and eastward migrations out of Europe from 1500 to 1820 were coerced in some form (serfs, indentured servants, military conscripts, and convicts).10 Coercion was more complete for the 1Ã¢â¬â3 million Poles, Ukrainians, and Russians traded in the Crimean Tartar slave traffic during the seventeenth century. The same was true in the largest migrations of any period before the mid-nineteenth century: the move of 10 million African slaves across the Atlantic and of a similarRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 Pagestranslation. For example, it funded a project to develop a computer program that could readily translate from English to Russian and also from Russian to English. After years of heavy investment, one of the researchers tested the main product of all these efforts by feeding in the following English sentence: The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak. The researcher then took the Russian output and fed it into the machine to be translated back into English, expecting to get something close to the original
Friday, May 15, 2020
CASE STUDY 1: RESIDENCE AND SOURCE Obtaining citizen of a country means enjoying all the facilities and exemptions provided by that country. Each country has some kind of privileges, rights and facilities which the country born individuals can only enjoy. People from outside country are debarred of those. However there are many cases where many outsiders have to stay in a country for many years. This will put them to many troubles as they do not have sufficient rights to enjoy. There long tern tenure may affect their daily requirements and even financial constraints (Batrouney, 2005). Therefore governments of different countries have made some standard rules and regulations for outsiders who used to spend most of their time staying andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They too have to take care of some of the responsibilities being allocated to them. A mutual relationship starts between both the parties and both get benefited by it. The migration story of an individual will become a dream come true. Considering the case study of Kit, is a permanent resident of Australia, is also an example of people who come from other country and get settled here (Batrouney, 2005). He was borned in Chile (a country of America) and retains his Chilean citizenship. He was appointed by his company to work in Australia since long. According to the terms and conditions provided by the Australian government, Kit was able to get the permanent resident of Australia. He fulfils following conditions made by the federal government to provide citizenship to the migrants. Those are, Ã¢â¬ ¢ The individual should be an adult which means he should be of 18 years age Ã¢â¬ ¢ Must have lived in Australia for about 4 years on the specified permanent residency visa (for years) before applying for Australian citizenship Ã¢â¬ ¢ Within that 4 years of time that individual is allowed to live only for a year outside the country Kit fulfils all the above criteria and thus is able to become a citizen of Australia. He also has his own house there along with personal and spouse bank account. However he has duration of maintaining this citizenship which could be of two categories, Ã¢â¬ ¢ Form 1300t Australian citizenship - General eligibility for applicants aged 18
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The proposed four stages of cognitive development are developed by Piaget. He supposes that, in a specific order, all of society passed through the four stages that he established, generally with precise ages. The first stage is the sensorimotor stage. This earliest stage, occurring from birth to two years of age, involves differentiation of self from objects. The child participates in action and begins to act purposely. Then, child comes to understand that objects still remain in existence even when they are out of sight. As a limitation, this stage seems to only support thinking only by doing. The second stage is the preoperational stage, occurring roughly the time child begins speaking to possibly seven years old. During this period, intelligence is established through symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed. As a limitation, the preoperational stage lacks the concept of conversation. The third stage is the concrete operational stage, which occurs around the time a child is in first grade to possibly eleven years of age. In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. As a lim itation, operations are only carried out on concrete objects, and also limited two characteristics at the same time. The fourth and final stage is the formal operational stage, which happens around adolescence to adulthood. During this stage, intelligence is established through theShow MoreRelatedThe Stages Of Cognitive Development1395 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageschain of four serious stages of cognitive development, according to Jean Piaget, who is a well-recognized psychologist. Through the observations he made of children, Piaget established a theory of development involving four stages: the sensorimotor stage, which is from birth to the age 2, the preoperational stage, from age 2 to about the age of 7 and the concrete operational stage, ranging from age 7 to 11. The last stage of his development was the formal operational stage, which begins in adolescenceRead MoreThe Stages Of Cognitive Development1290 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstudy of cognitive development that researchers and scientis ts still use today. PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s Cognitive Theory includes the four stages of cognitive development from birth to adulthood: Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete operational, and Formal operational. These stages include thought, judgement, and knowledge. He made the claim that children may enter these stages at different ages, but insisted that cognitive development always follows this sequence, cannot be skipped, and that each stage is markedRead MoreThe Four Stages Of Cognitive Development951 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmodel for the study cognitive development. This model explained how a childÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive skills develop over their lifetime, which will eventually result in more of an adult way of thinking; or a more elaborate and logical way of thinking. Unlike other psychologists who were studying cognition, Piaget believed that children were not Ã¢â¬Å"tiny adultsÃ¢â¬ , who had to eventually access a more complex way of thinking over time. Instead, he believed that a chi ldÃ¢â¬â¢s cognition progresses in stages through the processRead MoreStages Of Emotional And Cognitive Development1242 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand cognitive development in children and the role of nurture and nature. In understanding the emotional and cognitive development in children, many theorists including Bowlby and his attachment theory, Baumrind theory towards parenting styles and also Vygotsky and his theory on social development, have all worked hard over many years of research into producing theories on understanding how the development of children is important. It has been found that emotional and cognitive development are becomingRead MoreThe s Stages Of Cognitive Development1403 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesamaroszaman Two characters that I choose for this assignment are John Bender and Brian Johnson. In reference to PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s stages of cognitive development, I categorized Bender and Brian in formal operational stage because of their age. Besides, both of them also shows characteristic of adolescent egocentrism. As for Bender, we can see that he had developed the sense of invulnerability because he had taken many physical risks and do not think about the negative consequences of his actions. Brian showsRead MoreStages Of Cognitive And Moral Development810 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesStages of cognitive and moral development, Interests and learning styles, and Howard GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of Multiple Intelligences To meet my studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs, I will begin supporting them psychologically, academically and develop classes that appeal to a wide range of different bits of intelligence. I am going to develop assorted techniques to construct my lesson activities that allow students to relate to the subject matter in ways that fit their interests, learning styles and strengths. IRead MorePiaget s Stages Of Cognitive Development1072 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespsychology concepts including PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s stages of cognitive development, psychoactive drugs, and dreams. The first concept that I can relate to is PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s stages of cognitive development. Jean Piaget came up with this concept about how a childÃ¢â¬â¢s brain develops throughout their life. There are four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. The two stages I can specifically relate to are the sensorimotor and preoperational stages. I have a three year old cousin whoRead MorePiaget s Stages Of Cognitive Development Essay1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJean Piaget developed a cognitive approach to studying and classifying behavioral growth in stages. He believed that each child matured and learned at a different rate, so even though children mature in the same cognitive sequence, there might be separation in the achievement of each level from one child to the next (Swartwood, 2012, p. 46). PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s four stages of cognitive development are Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, and Formal Operational (Swartwood, 2012, p. 49). PiagetRead MoreThe Individual s Stage Of Cognitive Development999 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesher conservation skills using one of the tasks described on pp. 148-151 in your textbook. Describe both the test(s) and the results. What does performance on the object permanence or conservation task tell you about the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s stage of cognitive development in PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory? If the individual is a child, adolescent, or adult, ask the individual to draw a picture of what a human being would look like if he or she had three eyes instead of two. Ask the individual where the thirdRead MorePiaget s Stages Of Cognitive Development930 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Cognitive Development theory refers to the ability to learn through thinking and reasoning. Theorist Jean Piaget developed the stages of cognitive development according to age and how individuals learn through their environment and senses. Based on Education.com: Stages of Cognitive Development (Driscoll/Nagel ,2008), these stages are from infant to teenage years with specific abilities. The first stage of PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s stages of development is called Sensorimotor, which starts at birth to two years
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Museum Of Fine Arts Boston Paper On Two Works Essay The content of this work is as the title implies. This painting is of a storm in the mountains. It closely resembles a later work that is slightly more famous, by the same artist called Storm in the Rockies. Both works are done from similar perspective and are of the same set of mountains. For this reason believe this piece is a narrative work, it is the first painting of a pair that shows the progression of a storm through the Rocky Mountains. At the bottom in the foreground, tress and bushes are blowing in the wind from left to right. Beyond these trees a flat and mostly open field stretches into the distance. On either said of this field steep mountains and rock faces sprout form the ground and rise up to the edges of the picture plane. At the top left corner a dark cloud looks as though its moving across the sky. As it moves from left to right on the canvas it gets lighter and starts to move downward, and the white clouds engulf the top of the mountain on the right side of the picture plane. The lower portion of the mountain face on the right is drenched in a stream of yellow sunlight that is also traveling from left to right. Storm in the Mountains is a work of the fine arts as it is purely nonfunctional. I would certainly consider it to be a naturalistic work but there is also a feeling that it might be idealized or in other words shown slightly more beautiful than it actually appeared to the artist at the time of viewing. When and Where: Storm in the Mountains was painted in about 1870 in a New York art studio. Albert Bierstadt was born in Germany and at two years old his family immigrated to America and settles in New Bedford Massachusetts. Beginning in 1859 Albert made three trips to the west and made oil sketches along the way, once he returned to his New York studio he used these sketches to make panoramic views of the western world that he saw. Description of Historical Content: Alberts paintings emphasized the spectacular landscapes of the west, sometimes exaggerating what he had seen. This came at a time when the west was capturing Americans interest. When these painting were completed back in the east people saw them and they quickly found there way into public and private collections. They captured peoples imaginations and interest in the expanding American west. The Medium: Storm in the Mountains is oil paint on stretched canvas. This painting is defiantly not painterly or imposto, all the brush strokes are short and thin and are hard to see on the canvas. The frame is wood and painted gold. It really helps the painting to jump off the canvas as the area right near the frame on the picture plane is very dark and the frame is a vibrant gold. Attraction to the work: What first attracted me to Storm in the Mountains is the explosive color that the sunlight brings to the painting. Most of the picture plane is dark and dull except the incredible yellows and greens that glow on the canvas as a stream on sunlight breaks through the clouds and onto the mountain side. These yellows and greens that truly seem to glow from the canvas are what first got my attention. Once I stood and observed the work for a while it almost seemed as though the clouds were moving and the tresss really blowing I could feel what the air must have felt like and could imagine how the sun felt breaking through the clouds. The painting gave me a mentally image of the scene in action. Personal meaning: There is a strong feeling that goes along with any work that has a light from above breaking through the darkness and clouds. To me it represents overcoming sadness and depression, or the old saying that every cloud has a silver lining. It says no matter whats wrong things will get better. Universal meaning: I would think the universal meaning in this work would be close to my personal meaning. A flowing stream of sunlight breaks through the dark clouds and bathes the once dull mountain side with beautiful sunshine. This image could represent god looking down from the heavens. It might say to people that god is looking down upon them. It may give hope to those that feel dull and drowned in darkness. Paul Cezanne Biography EssayThe Medium: Old Brooklyn Bridge was painted in oil based paint on stretched canvas. The frame that surrounds the painting matches it perfectly and almost seems as though it is part of the painting itself. It is silver in color and it appears to be metallic. The frame matches the cables the run along the painting from bottom to top and the side of the frame runs almost parallel to them. Attraction to the work: When I walked into the gallery that the Old Brooklyn Bridge was hanging in I first noticed its scale. Its a large scale piece at (76 1/4 x 68 1/4 in.) The second thing that really attracted me was the deep and bright colors. The deep blues of the night sky and the vibrant red of the street lights really give the painting a pop. There is also a lot of contrasting going on between blacks and whites in the painting. Personal meaning: Im not sure this painting expresses a deeper meaning to me. I choose it not because of its meaning but because I enjoyed looking at it. Its a painting Id like to have in my house and see everyday. I like that it has a modern feel even though it is more than 60 years old. Universal meaning: I believe the painting Old Brooklyn Bridge represented a change in American thinking, just as the bridge itself forged old and new technology together, so did the painting. The futuristic abstraction of the old bridge represented in the painting is a symbol of the old changing into the new. I believed people saw this work as uplifting. Design Elements, and Compositional Elements: This work is full of various types of lines. Just about ever object in the painting has contour lines surrounding them. There are also many cross contour lines, where the cables in the painting cross in many spots. Most of the lines in the painting are straight and meet at sharp points and right angles. There is a lot of shape repetition going on also; there are many rectangles and triangles through out the work. Color is a very important part of the painting. The flowing blue that is seen throughout gives off a soothing feeling. The red of the stop light at the lower middle of the painting draws your eyes in to the first focal point of many in the work. From there an implied line starting at the point of the red triangle of the stop light creates a visual pathway up to the second focal point, which is the gothic arches at the top center of the work. From there your eyes follow the cables back down to the bottom of the work. Joseph Stellas Old Brooklyn Bridge is a formally composed painting, it appears to be well though out and was probably sketched many times prior to being painted. The painting has a strong feeling of depth, this is due to cross hatching lines that the cables create as they run roughly parallel to each other and meet at a vanishing point at the top center on the picture plane. The painting also appears to have 3 dimensional qualities because the artist used linear perspective, everything that is supposed to be perceived as farther away from the viewer is smaller than the objects that are perceived to be close to the viewer. Joseph also uses a method called position; with this method Joseph positioned objects he wanted to be seen as close to the viewer, low on the picture plane and object that should appear further away from the viewer higher up on the picture plane. Joseph also uses approximate symmetry as both sides of the painting are very similar. Joseph used many of these techniques he used to paint Old Brooklyn Bridge throughout his carrier and had mastered them by this late point in his life.
Monday, April 13, 2020
Exploring teenage pregnancy in the uk Essay Sexual Health is a cardinal component of wellness. Teenage gestation is an facet of sexual wellness which has been of great public wellness and societal importance due to the deductions it poses. Harmonizing to UNICEF ( 2001 ) , UK has the highest adolescent gestation rate in Western Europe. This essay will critically analyze the factors that contribute to teenage gestation in the UK, that is, socio-economic, education- related factors and every bit good as hazardous behavior. To acquire a better understating of this subject, effects of adolescent gestation every bit good as current schemes, intercessions and recommendations for improved attention in undertaking adolescent gestation will be discussed. The essay will be concluded with a sum-up of the literature. We will write a custom essay sample on Exploring teenage pregnancy in the uk specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Exploring teenage pregnancy in the uk specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Exploring teenage pregnancy in the uk specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Adolescent gestation can be defined as a term employed to mention to giving birth of immature adult females under 20 which consequence in unrecorded births or abortions ( Ewles 2005 ) . The graduated table of job is shocking. Approximately 91,200 constructs in adolescents take topographic point per twelvemonth, 7700 among misss under 16 old ages of age and 2200 among 14 twelvemonth olds or younger ( Chambers et al 2001 ) . Furthermore, 46 % constitutes to those who have legal abortion and 56 % of those aged under 16 old ages who partake in an abortion. Harmonizing to Ewles ( 2005 ) , UK teenage gestation rates are much higher compared to other European states, in that, they are five times every bit high as compared to those in Netherlands, three times every bit high as compared to France and two times higher in Germany. Adolescent gestation poses a great public wellness menace due to the causal nexus associated with wellness inequalities. The high rates of abortion and sexually familial disease elucidates that immature people are non holding protected sex and this is supported by the dismaying STI rates which are highest in 16-19 twelvemonth old adult females ( Baker et al 2007 ) . Furthermore, Elwes ( 2005 ) states that one in 10 sexually active adolescents is infected with a sexually familial disease, exemplifying deficiency of public consciousness about sex instruction, contraceptive method and rubber usage. In order to undertake adolescent gestation, it is of import to understand the factors that contribute to teenage gestation. Research grounds has identified the cardinal hazard factors which are acknowledged to be associated with adolescent gestation. Ewles ( 2005 ) states that low outlooks is a major factor, where we see there is a important association between immature people from lower-social economic categories and high rates of adolescent gestation and birth. Lack of employment and detachment from instruction or preparation can potentially give rise to feelings of insufficiency and hoplessness therefore ends and aspirations seem unachievable impacting the mentality of one s hereafter. Furthermore, harmonizing to the study conducted by the Department for instruction and accomplishments ( 2006 ) , low instruction attainment and go forthing school at 16 with no makings are obviously independent hazard factors of adolescent gestation. Consequently, parentage can be perceived as an appropriate blessing to derive maturity position with no employment or educational attainment to demo for it. However, the SEU ( 1999 ) did non happen grounds to back up these findings. Ignorance about sex and relationships has been identified as another hazard factor. Notwithstanding being surrounded by sexual images and messages from an early age and despite being sexually active, research demonstrates that there is hapless cognition on consensual and safe sexual relationships, contraceptive method and STI s among immature people ( Ewles 2005 ) . A survey conducted by the Health Education Authority ( 1999 ) reported that 25 % of adolescents aged 14-15 old ages perceived that the preventive pill protected them from geting a sexually transmitted diseases which can be exacerbated by myths, such as first sexual experience will non stop up in gestation, that are evident in the society. In a nutshell, immature people have impractical perceptual experiences on gestation and parentage ( SEU 1999 ) . Assorted messages have been associated with teenage gestation, given that, kids and adolescents in the UK are bombarded by sexual images and messages which can potentially take one to believing and accepting sex as the norm in the society even at a immature age ( Ewles 2005 ) . It is argued that in the UK, sex appears to be the usage and comparatively necessary, whereas contraceptive method and sexual wellness consciousness is unequal therefore clarifying immature people can non do informed determinations ( NHS 2004 ) . Simultaneously, there may be deficient communicating between parents or instructors and immature people on sex and contraceptive method therefore go forthing immature people uninformed. Poverty is another factor, where the hazard of going a teenage female parent is about 10 times more in misss and adult females from societal category V ( unskilled and manual ) as compared to adult females in societal category 1 ( professional ) ( DOH 1999 ) . Additionally, research grounds illustrates immature adult females who have experienced attention or Foster and homelessness are at hazard every bit good ( Chambers et al 2001 ) . A survey reported adult females in this class are two times at hazard of going teenage female parents compared to those raised by birth parents ( Baker 2007 ) . A complimentary survey besides found out that about 50 % of misss go forthing attention become female parents within 18months to two old ages ( DOH 1999 ) . A British cohort survey conducted in 1970 reported that one of the strongest forecasters of teenage gestation is being a girl of a teenage female parent because they are 1.5 times at hazard as compared to kids born of older adult females ( Baker 2007 ) . Harmonizing to DOH ( 1999 ) , holding a history sexual maltreatment is identified as a hazard factor where we see immature people may be loath to abstain from sexual force per unit area subsequent to mistreat that ensued. Numerous surveies have elucidated the association between mental wellness upsets and teenage gestation, in add-on, Maskey s survey conducted in 1991 illustrated that a 3rd of immature adult females with behavior upsets become pregnant before the age of 17 ( Baker 2007 ) . Crime is besides a factor particularly with adolescents who get involved in improper activities doing constabulary intercession because they are twice likely to go adolescent parents. ( Chambers et al 2001 ) . Tyrer et al conducted in a survey in 2005 and reported that 39 % of immature female wrongdoers are adolescent female parents even as approximates propose that more than 25 % of immature male wrongdoers are adolescent male parents or fathers-to-be ( Zaplin 2006 ) . Hazardous behavior for illustration early oncoming of sexual activity and hapless preventive usage are factors associated with adolescent gestation. The mean age of first sexual intercourse has fallen from to 16 ( House Of Commons 2002-3 ) and girls holding sex under 16 are three times more likely to go pregnant that those who have sex over 16 old ages ( SEU 1999 ) . Approximately 60 % of male childs and 47 % of misss dropping out of school at 16 with no makings engaged in sex compared to 20 % for both males ( Baker 2007 ) . Ethnicity has a cardinal nexus with adolescent gestation. Consistent with the 2001 nose count, informations on female parents under 19years demonstrated that adolescent gestation rates are well higher among female parents of mixed and black Caribbean, other black and black Caribbean ethnicity ( Baker 2007 ) . Early oncoming of sexual activity is linked to cultural groups where a study conducted in East London ( Viner and Roberts 2004, ) illustrated that first sexual brush under 16 was higher among Caribbean work forces ( 56 % ) compared with 30 % for black African and 27 % for white work forces and 11 % for Indian and Pakistani work forces. As for adult females, 30 % for both white, black Caribbean, 12 % for black African and 3 % for Indian and Pakistani adult females. In add-on, hapless prophylactic usage among specific cultural groups has been associated with adolescent gestation ( Baker 2007 ) . Having acknowledged the factors and effects associated with high rates of teenage gestation, Tony Blair commissioned the Social Exclusion Unit ( SEU 1999 ) to develop a adolescent gestation scheme, known as the National Teenage Pregnancy Strategy in 1999 ( Ewles 2005 ) . Its chief purposes were to halve the figure of teenage constructs by 2010 and set up a consistent diminution in tendency in the under -16 adolescent gestation rate ( SEU 1999 ) . Harmonizing to ( Chambers et al 2001 ) , a sum of 150 adolescent gestation co-ordinators were appointed in each local authorization country in England, in 2000, who lead the force to put to death the Social Exclusion Unit study. Each local country has employed a 10-year scheme, with local under -18 gestation rate decrease marks of between 40 % and 60 % , which strengthens the national decrease mark of 50 % ( Ewles 2005 ) . As recommended by the SEU ( 1999 ) , the chief preventive intercessions in undertaking adolescent gestation are effectual school-based sex and relationships instruction ( SRE ) that are established with the aid of local authorization, peculiarly when correlated with contraceptive method usage and services. HDA ( 2004 ) reported that SRE programmes was extremely rated by immature people who received it and were positively impacted by the cognition and decreased the degree of study over first sexual intercourse.However, from the UK- based systematic rating of SRE programme they found out that the multi-faceted attack had no consequence on contraceptive method usage and sexual behavior ( Nice 2004 ) . ( DFES ) stated that effectual instruction programmes should be focused on extenuating behaviors that cause adolescent gestation and are based on theory and high spot background information on sexual affairs Furthermore clear information on usage of contraceptive method is necessary and im mature people should be informed about the hazard factors, how they can avoid sex as good protection against gestation and STI s. Activities that help cover with equal and societal force per unit area are cardinal and how to get communicating, dialogue and refusal accomplishments by using participatory learning methods ( HDA 2004 ) . Ewles ( 2005 ) argues that abstention instruction as recommended by the scheme has proved to be uneffective The scheme stated the demand to affect and supply information on bar to teenager s parents which is cardinal. SEU ( 1999 ) recommended that young person Services should affect programmes that integrate a long term, multi-dimensional attack that is a combination of self-esteem edifice, voluntary work, and educational support ( Ewles 2005 ) and have a clear focal point on turn toing issues that affect immature people for illustration, sexual wellness and substance maltreatment. HDA ( 2004 ) states that, the acceptance of development programmes has proved to be successful in America and has been elucidated as a competent attack to teenage bar. Chambers et Al ( 2003 ) argues that proviso of effectual sexual wellness services has been identified as a factor for cut downing adolescent gestation. The DFES ( 2006 ) recommended the handiness and handiness of well-publicised preventive and sexual wellness advice services targeted for immature people, with a an established duty that commits to wellness publicity work and bringing of reactive service. In add-on, engaged and coordinated action among all cardinal mainstream bringing spouses who are responsible for cut downing adolescent gestation wellness, Education, Social services and youth support services every bit good as the voluntary sector is critical ( Ewles 2005 ) . Furthermore, HDA ( 2004 ) recommended that practising confidentiality and holding long term proviso of services has proved effectual in teenage bar. Another cardinal recommendation is the demand for a acute focal point on trim intercessions that target immature people who are susceptible to teenage gestation particularly with Looked After Children, that is, those in attention and Foster ( Acheson 2001 ) . The scheme advocated for professionals in spouse administrations for illustration, Connexions, working with the most vulnerable immature people need consistent Sexual and Relationship Education preparation that are readily available ( HDA 2004 ) . Furthermore, the national teenage scheme introduced the national media run aimed at extenuating myths and provides immature with clear and accurate information to do it possible for immature people to do informed picks therefore cut downing adolescent gestation rates ( Ewles 2005 ) . It recommended that effectual information should be clear and unambiguous ( HDA 2004 ) . The current focal point on consciousness and instruction is supported by the two national media runs which are ; R U believing is addressed to immature adolescents promoting them to detain oncoming of sexual activity and eschew equal force per unit area ; Want Respect? Use a rubber is targeted at immature people who are sexually active by advancing rubber usage by associating rubber usage with 1s behaviors and behavior that will gain regard from their equal ( DFES 2006 ) . The Teenage Pregnancy Strategy s chief precedence is to cut down under 18 gestations by supplying immature people with ways and inducements to postpone parentage until they able to get by with the challenges that come with it. However, the scheme is dedicated to back up and cut downing the hazard of hapless results for teenage parents and their kids, with a mark to increase the engagement in instruction, preparation or employment of teenage female parent s aged 16-19 by 2010 ( DFES 2006 ) . Harmonizing to the Acheson Report ( 2001 ) the inequalities faced by adolescents who go on to be mother every bit compared to older female parents are unhinging because there is an increased likeliness they have mental wellness jobs, particularly, post-natal depression ; are 50 % likely to breast provender every bit good as have a higher happening of smoking during gestation and experience relationship dislocation. In add-on, when they become older, say in their mid-thirtiess, it is apparent that they are more likely experience poorness, be subjected to unemployment, deficiency makings and live on benefits which makes them susceptible to acquire trapped in the poorness rhythm which can potentially take to a hapless grownup life. ( Ewles 2005 ) . Children Born of teenage parents are 60 % more at hazard of infant mortality and can perchance decease in their first twelvemonth, 25 more at hazard be conceived with a low birth weight, are peculiarly at much higher hazard of turning up sing poorness, hapless lodging and nutrition for a long draw and are at a greater hazard of going adolescent parents themselves ( Ewles 2005 ) . To forestall hapless out comes for teenage parents and their kids, the scheme recommends and provides support and intercessions that include prenatal and postpartum support where they are provided with impartial information on option of parentage, abortion and acceptance and gestation proving services every bit good ( Ewles 2005 ) . They are advised and acquire aid with psychosocial issues for illustration, anxiousness that they may confront during and after their gestation with the aid of youth-friendly pregnancy services characterised by trim theoretical accounts of attention ( Chambers et al 2005 ) . Together with supplying immature parents with development accomplishments in parentage, the scheme recommends and is committed to supply services that will back up them to remain or restart to instruction, preparation or employment ( Ewles 2005 ) . This is includes happening preferable classs, acquiring aid with child care so that immature parents can go on with instruction or work every bit good as supplying them with necessary aid for them to stay in school or acquire alternate methods to go on with instruction ( DFES 2006 ) . The scheme introduced the Certain Start Plus programme to supply every kid with the best start in life by supplying instruction, child care, wellness and household support ( National Audit Office ) . It recommends and recognizes the important benefits of a committed personal adviser for teenage parents, who tailors ongoing support bundles to run into assorted single demands for illustration lodging and fiscal demands ( Ewles 2005 ) . In consistent with the precedences of the scheme in footings of better support, it acknowledges that high quality support to all teenage parents populating without household or parents is needed ( DFES 2006 ) . Furthermore, some immature female parent under 18 can be susceptible to societal exclusion when they live without any support, taking to isolation particularly when disintegrated from their societal support webs, that is, household. The scheme aims to undertake this by supplying supported lodging to all under 18 lone parents who can non populate at place or with their spouse and are provided with suited demands ( Ewles 2005 ) . This reduces the damaging effects of hapless lodging on wellness. In decision, this essay has discussed the factors that contribute to teenage gestation and its impact on public wellness. Furthermore, the deductions of teenage gestation have been highlighted. The authorities, through the Social Exclusion unit and the constitution of the National Teenage Pregnancy Strategy, has been involved in undertaking teenage gestation through joined up action, national media run, better support for teenage parents and better bar as discussed. Harmonizing to Naidoo and Wills, instruction and persuasion through mass media run may be an effectual scheme in undertaking teenage gestation because these techniques are geared to alter people s behaviors and life styles volitionally as a consequence of information, support and advice.. HDA ( 2004 ) states that immature people should be provided with sufficient instruction and clear information about all facts of sex and relationships and its deductions coupled with confidential and accessible beginnings of preventive s ervices in undertaking adolescent gestation.
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Sexually Transmitted Diseases Essays - Free Essays, Term Papers Sexually Transmitted Diseases 05-16-97 A major question facing many teenagers is whether or not to have sex. A result of having sex is contracting sexually transmitted diseases. Sexually transmitted diseases, or venereal diseases affect 10 to 12 million Americans each year. (Daugirdas 75) In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases strike an average of one person every 1.5 seconds. (76) About half of STD patients are under the age of twenty-five. (Landers 45) Nearly 2.5 million teenagers are infected with these deadly diseases. (Welsh A-5) A few types of sexually transmitted diseases are gonorrhea, herpes, chlamydia, syphilis, etc. These diseases can be fatal if not attended to. In addition to those epidemic diseases already mentioned, such diseases include syphilis, crab lice, vaginal infection caused by the Hemophilus bacterium, molluscum contagiosum, chancroid, and the list goes on and on. There are many ways to transmit these diseases. Transmission of all these diseases occurs only by intimate contact with an infected person, because all of the causative organisms die quickly if removed from the human body. (Leone 128) Although the usual area of contact is the genital, the practice of anal and oral sex also leads to cases of anal and oral infections. (130) A few of these diseases, notably chancroid and scabies, can be spread by the infected person from one area of skin to another by the hands. (Daugardis 86) Gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydial infections can also be transmitted from a pregnant woman to her infant, either in the uterus or during birth. Such congenital infections can be quite severe. Although venereal infections start at the external genitalia, they can spread to the prostate, uterus, testes, and nearby organs. (87) Most of these infections cause only irritation, itching, and minor pain, but gonorrhea and chlamydial urethritis are a major cause of infertility in women. People with sexually transmitted diseases may have no symptoms or symptoms that are so mild that they do not aware the person to seek medical attention. For example, almost half of the women with gonorrhea have no significant symptoms, and up to 3 percent of men will feel perfectly well. (Welsh A-5) Some STDs have overlapping symptoms. Swelling of the lymph nodes in the groin may accompany many sexually transmitted infections and may be tender or painless. (Leone 135) Such swelling may be the only manifestation of a relatively rare STD called lymphogranuloma venereum. Unusual or increased discharge from the penis or vagina can be a symptom of a number of STDs, including gonorrhea, chlamydia, and particularly in women, vaginitis, which encompasses three different infections: bacterial, yeast, and trichomoniasis, which is caused by a protozoan. (135) Some STDs can cause skin lesions in the genital area. One of the first symptoms of syphilis is the chancre, a relatively painless ulcer found at the site of infection, which is usually, but not always, the genital area. (Daugardis 107) Herpes causes sores in the genital area that are very similar to cold sores. Genital warts, caused by the human papilloma virus, resemble warts on other parts of the body and can be found both internally and externally in the genital region. (108) Large, painful genital ulcers are symptomatic of the bacterial infection chancroid, common is Southeast Asia, but rare in the United States. (Leone 137) Small bumps around the genitals may be molluscum contagiosum, a viral disease spread by contact; this infection is also acquired nonsexually by young children. Itchy, crusted scabies lesions result from infestation with the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, which burrows into the superficial layers of the skin. Itching in the pubic hair region may result from infestation with Phthirus pubis, the crab louse, which is spread by close contact. (138) This epidemic nature of sexually transmitted diseases attests to the difficulty of controlling them. Some public health officials attribute the increase in many of these diseases to increasing sexual activity. Also significant may be the replacement of the condom with birth control pills and diaphragms. Patterns of sexually transmitted disease also change. Whereas syphilis and gonorrhea were both epidemic at one time, widespread use of penicillin brought syphilis under moderate control. (Scott 52) Attention then turned to control of gonorrhea, at which time syphilis again began to increase in frequency. (52) The
Monday, February 24, 2020
Five Point Plan for Crime Reduction Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words
Five Point Plan for Crime Reduction - Term Paper Example Five Point Plan for Crime Reduction There is need to focus beyond individual intervention, enforcement and suppression. Most of these gangs are youth gangs. In order to respond well to the youth, strength-based approaches should be incorporated. There is a need to increase focus from criminal behaviors. This is just an indication or results of involvement in gangs. The problem of gang involvement should be clearly defined and its causes clearly understood. These causes should then be addressed as matters of priority.Therefore, there is need to reach to the roots of gang formation and involvement. There should be a shift from over-emphasizing reactive solutions like enforcement and suppression which only deals with those who have gotten the attention of the judicial system. Traditional methods of curbing crimes like enforcement and suppression are not sufficient in controlling the existing and emerging criminal activities. Further more, these approaches are harsh and create rebellion. They do not prevent crimes but deal with its aftermaths. Therefore there should be a shift from these traditional to strategic policies. Reduction of crimes should be a shared vision and responsibility. Necessary resources, knowledge and skills should be incorporated in order to see the success of this Five Point crime reduction plan. There should be adequate and continuous support for local communities. The public should be informed and engaged. Their support and co-operation is also very necessary because they are the main victims of such criminal activities.